# Jacek's Blog

Software Engineering Consultant

# Python Style printf for C++ with pprintpp

November 5, 2016

The C++ STL comes with stream style character output, which is an alternative to the classic printf like format function collection of the C library. For different reasons, some C++ programmers still stick to printf like formatting. This article demonstrates the pprintpp (open source, and available on Github) library, which tries to make printf use comfortable and safe while avoiding any runtime overhead.

## C++ Streams vs. printf

So, I am presenting a printf frontend library which tries to enhance it. But what is wrong with printf? Let’s compare it with C++ stream style printing in different situations:

### Round 1: Inconvenience

Consider the following simple program:

#include <cstdio>

int main()
{
printf("%u, %x, %0.8f, %0.8lf, %s\n", 123u, 0x123u, 1.0f, 2.0, "Hello World");
}

It’s simply no fun to tell printf of which type all variables are. The compiler knows the types already, so why must the programmer type the type names again?

C++ streams fix this, as the operator<< is properly overloaded for any type, which selects the right formatting method automatically. Let’s have a look how to get exactly the same output with C++ streams:

#include <cstdio>
#include <iostream>

int main()
{
printf("%u, %x, %0.8f, %0.8lf, %s\n", 123u, 0x123u, 1.0f, 2.0, "Hello World");

std::cout << 123u << ", "
<< std::hex << 0x123u << ", "
<< std::fixed << std::setprecision(6) << 1.0f << ", "
<< 2.0 << ", "
<< "Hello World\n";

}

All type safety aside, at this point most likely everyone will agree that this is, from a readability and comfort perspective, no improvement over to printf.

Although I must say that I do not format floating point numbers every day and had to guess here and there while being too lazy to look at the documentation. In order to see if the printf format works as I hoped, I had to run the program. At the same time, the C++ iostream format just did not compile when I did it wrong!

### Round 2: Type Pitfalls

When compiling the following program on a 64-bit machine, everything is fine:

printf("%ld\n", static_cast<uint64_t>(123));

Compiling it on a 32-bit machine, the compiler quickly comes up with errors like:

error: format '%ld' expects argument of type 'long int', but argument 2 has type 'uint64_t {aka long long unsigned int}' [-Werror=format=]

So on 32bit systems, one should better have used %lld. This feels needlessly complicated because in both cases, the compiler knows the *@!#* type, but nevertheless the programmer has to deal with this now.

There is a portable solution: PRIu64. The header file brings a lot of PRI macros. Using this here looks like the following:

printf("%" PRIu64 "\n", static_cast<uint64_t>(123));

All the printf fans who laughed at the ugliness of C++ streams, now again look a little bit like fools.

### Round 3: Repetition

There are certain types which are a data composition of multiple values. A very typical example are vectors of data, e.g. geometric vectors:

struct vec3d {
double x;
double y;
double z;
};

When printing some game state or similar, one usually wants to see vectors formatted like (1.000, 2.000, 0.000).

Okay, easy:

printf("(%0.3lf, %0.3lf, %0.3lf)\n", v.x, v.y, v.z);

What if there are a lot of vectors?

printf("(%0.3lf, %0.3lf, %0.3lf), "
"(%0.3lf, %0.3lf, %0.3lf), "
"(%0.3lf, %0.3lf, %0.3lf)\n",
v1.x, v1.y, v1.z,
v2.x, v2.y, v2.z,
v2.x, v3.y, v3.z);

Okay, it starts to get very repetitive.

And we have a bug: I mistyped the x value of the third vector. Would you have seen it in a code review?

C++ iostream users would just overload operator<< for std::ostream once and be done with this forever:

std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream &os, const vec3d &v) {
return os << "("
<< std::setprecision(4)
<< v.x << ", " << v.y << ", " << v.z
<< ")";
}

Printing multiple vectors now looks like this:

std::cout << v1 << ", " << v2 << ", " << v3 << '\n';

printf users may start defining helpful macros:

#define PRIvec3d       "(%0.3lf, %0.3lf, %0.3lf)"
#define UNPACKvec3d(v) (v).x, (v).y, (v).z

…and print their vectors like this:

printf(PRIvec3d ", " PRIvec3d ", " PRIvec3d "\n",
UNPACKvec3d(v1), UNPACKvec3d(v2), UNPACKvec3d(v3));

In my opinion, C++ streams clearly win at this point.

## Being Stuck with printf. For Reasons.

Situations exist, where developers really can’t use stream printing. The reasons for those situations might be technical, but there are also social reasons: What are you going to do if you work in a team with printf dinosaurs, who just like it, and then it becomes a project convention to use printf? Right, nothing.

I found myself in such a situation. And I made format string mistakes all the time, which led me to think about how to fix printf by removing a whole class of bug sources. Bjarne Stroustrupi’s C++ book proposes a type safe printf (Section 28.6.1), which is implemented using variadic templates. My team did not find this solution acceptable because it generates custom code for every printf invocation.

## The Idea

When using printf, the programmer asks himself “What is the type of the variable I am going to print?”, and as soon as that question is answered, the next question is “What is the right % format string for this type?”. The compiler can easily answer these questions. The next thing is: How to make the compiler do that, without generating additional runtime code?

In the past, I wrote about type lists which can be used as compile-time data structures for metaprograms. And building on top of that, I wrote about transforming string literals to type lists, doing something with them and transforming back to string literals. Understanding the ideas from those articles is crucial for understanding the code of this library.

After a lot of inspiring discussions with my colleagues, we iterated towards the idea of having a compile time function, which takes a simplified format string, and a list of the types of the parameters the user provided. The syntax of the simplified format string was inspired by Python style printing. In Python, you can do the following:

python shell >>> "some {} with some var {}".format("string", 123)
'some string with some var 123'

Being inspired from that, I hoped to be able to come up with something like…

printf(metaprog_result("some {} with some var {}",
typelist<const char *, int>),
"string", 123);

…which collapses to the following during compile time:

printf("some %s with some var %d", "string", 123);

With this design, it is also possible to use the meta-program as a frontend for not only printf, but also sprintf, fprintf, etc.

### First Step: Defining an autoformat Macro

The first problem is, that the parameters "string", 123 need to be both present in the printf function call as parameters, and at the same time, a type list <const char*, int> needs to be extracted out of them. The only way I was able to come up with was a preprocessor macro:

#define AUTOFORMAT(fmtstr, ...) \
({ \
using paramtypes = create_typelist_from_params(__VA_ARGS__)); \
return_preprocessed_format_str(fmtstr, paramtypes); \
})

#define pprintf(fmtstr, ...) \
printf(AUTOFORMAT(fmtstr, __VA_ARGS__), __VA_ARGS)

This way it is possible to extract a type list with all the parameter types, feed it into a metaprogram which preprocesses and transforms the simplified format string, and then puts a printf compatible result into printf. And that would then happen without adding any portion of additional runtime code.

Unfortunately, in C++ (even including C++17) there is currently no other way to do this without C preprocessor macros.

### Second Step: Obtaining the Type List

What we have: "some string", 123. What we want: const char*, int.

In the AUTOFORMAT macro, the parameters, separated by commas, are available via __VA_ARGS__. These can be put into a template function call, which deduces the types:

template <typename ... Ts>
make_t<Ts...> tie_types(Ts...);

This function does not even need to be defined because it is only used in a decltype environment. No runtime code will lever call it. Within the pprintf macro, it can now be used the following way:

using paramtypes = decltype(tie_types(__VA_ARGS__));

paramtypes is now a type list. make_t<const char*, int> evaluates to tl<const char*, tl<int, null_t>> (Read more about how this in particular works in the type list article).

### Third Step: Transforming the Simplified Format String

Having the simplified format string with {} braces, and the list of types the user provided as printf arguments, this can be fed to some algorithm which constructs a printf compatible format string.

The following statement will run the metaprogram function autoformat_t, which results in a struct with a static member function str(), which returns the printf compatible result string:

autoformat_t<strprov, paramtypes>::str();

What autoformat_t does, is basically:

1. Iterate through the simplified format string.
2. For every opening { brace, find the closing } brace.
3. For every pair of braces, take the right argument type from the type list.
4. Map from type to %foo format string (There is a lookup table of those), and substitute the braces by the format string piece.

The brace match search algorithm looks really similar to the function of the compile-time brainfuck interpreter, which searches for matching [] pairs.

### Detail Features

Just looking for {} braces and substituting them by format string pieces is not enough. There are different cases and use cases which must be handled:

#### Printing Strings

When a programmer writes pprintf("Buffer address: {}\n", some_char_buffer);, it is not wise to substitute the {} with %s. As the example already suggests, the parameter is of type char*, but it is not a null terminated string.

Different implementation strategies can be applied:

1. Let the user cast the parameter to void*, then autoformat_t will substitute the braces with %p to print the address of the buffer.
2. Let the user additionally type {s} between the braces, so autoformat_t knows that the user really wants to print it as a string.

I chose method 2. Printing a string now looks like this:

pprintf("Some string: {s}", "Hello World");

#### Formatting Integers as Hex Numbers

When a programmer writes pprintf("Some hex number: {}", 0x123);, there must be some possibility to express “I want this integer printed as hex number instead of a decimal number”.

I chose to let the user provide this information between the braces by writing {x}. This way any integer of any size will be printed correctly as %x, or %lx, or %llx.

Example: pprintf("{x}", 0x123); results in printf("%x", 0x123);

What if the user wants to print a double variable, but also needs to specify the precision?

In that case, autoformat_t will just take anything which is not an x or s (as used as a special specifier for string or hex number formatting) and put it between the % and the f or lf for doubles. This works for any type.

This strategy is applied to all types. This way it is possible to tamper with the indentation, precision, etc. whatever printf supports for which type.

Example: pprintf("{0.3}", 1.23); results in printf("%0.3lf", 1.23);

#### Printing Actual {} Braces

If the user wants to print actual {} braces, it must be possible to mask them somehow.

If autoformat_t runs over an opening brace but finds it masked with \, it will ignore it. The closing brace is ignored already because the closing brace search function is not called.

However, there are actually 2 backslashes needed because \ alone does not result in an actual “" string part. The backslash must be masked itself, so only \\{ will result in the autoformat_t function seeing a \{.

Example: pprintf("var in braces: \\{ {} }", 123); results in printf("var in braces: { %d }", 123);

#### Catching Brace Mismatches

The meta-program refuses to compile if…

• it does not find a closing brace for an opening one.
• it finds nested braces { {} }, in which case it looks probable that the user wanted to mask the outer pair.
• it finds more {} placeholders than parameters provided by the user.
• it finds less {} placeholders than parameters provided by the user.

### The Type-to-Format-String Lookup Table

All types are cleaned from any const etc. noise, and then fed into the type2fmt function:

template <typename T> struct type2fmt;

// Integral types
template <> struct type2fmt<char>                { using type = char_tl_t<'c'>; };
template <> struct type2fmt<short>               { using type = char_tl_t<'d'>; };
template <> struct type2fmt<int>                 { using type = char_tl_t<'d'>; };
template <> struct type2fmt<long int>            { using type = char_tl_t<'l', 'd'>; };
template <> struct type2fmt<long long int>       { using type = char_tl_t<'l', 'l', 'd'>; };
template <> struct type2fmt<unsigned char>       { using type = char_tl_t<'u'>; };
template <> struct type2fmt<unsigned short>      { using type = char_tl_t<'u'>; };
template <> struct type2fmt<unsigned>            { using type = char_tl_t<'u'>; };
template <> struct type2fmt<unsigned long>       { using type = char_tl_t<'l', 'u'>; };
template <> struct type2fmt<unsigned long long>  { using type = char_tl_t<'l', 'l', 'u'>; };

// Floating point
template <> struct type2fmt<float>  { using type = char_tl_t<'f'>; };
template <> struct type2fmt<double> { using type = char_tl_t<'l', 'f'>; };

// Pointers
template <> struct type2fmt<std::nullptr_t> { using type = char_tl_t<'p'>; };
template <typename T> struct type2fmt<T*>   { using type = char_tl_t<'p'>; };

type2fmt will then return a character type list, which can be used to compose the right format string for printf.

Note that the 32bit/64bit safety comes from here. For 64bit systems, uint64_t is an unsigned long, while it is an unsigned long long on 32bit systems. When the user writes pprintf("Some 64bit unsigned: {}", uint64_t(123));, the compiler will go through all the typedef aliases, and boil the type down to unsigned long, or unsigned long long, depending on what platform the code is compiled for. Because of this, type2fmt will automatically translate the uint64_t to the right format string: %lu or %llu. No PRIu64 necessary.

What’s with the “no runtime overhead” and “no additional runtime code” promise?

Compiling the program…

#include <cstdio>
#include <pprintpp.hpp>

int main()
{
pprintf("{} hello {s}! {}\n", 1, "world", 2);
}

…leads to the following main function in the binary:

bash $objdump -d example ... 0000000000400450 <main>: 400450: 48 83 ec 08 sub$0x8,%rsp
400454:       41 b8 02 00 00 00       mov    $0x2,%r8d 40045a: b9 04 06 40 00 mov$0x400604,%ecx # <-- "world"
40045f:       ba 01 00 00 00          mov    $0x1,%edx 400464: be 10 06 40 00 mov$0x400610,%esi # <-- "%d hello world %s!..."
400469:       bf 01 00 00 00          mov    $0x1,%edi 40046e: 31 c0 xor %eax,%eax 400470: e8 bb ff ff ff callq 400430 <__printf_chk@plt> 400475: 31 c0 xor %eax,%eax 400477: 48 83 c4 08 add$0x8,%rsp
40047b:       c3                      retq
...

Excerpt of the data section where the strings which are loaded reside:

bash \$ objdump -s -j .rodata example
...
Contents of section .rodata:
400600 01000200 776f726c 64000000 00000000  ....world.......
400610 25642068 656c6c6f 20257321 2025640a  %d hello %s! %d.
400620 00                                   .

The string looks exactly as if one had written printf("%d hello %s! %d\n", /* ... */);.

Having exactly that string embedded in the binary does not rely on optimization. It may happen, that the str() function which statically returns this string, is still called in an unoptimized binary. But this function does nothing else than returning this string, which is already composed in the binary.

## Limitations

The autoformat_t meta-program does only substitute generic placeholders with the right % format strings, which are compatible with printf.

It does not extend printf with more formatting capabilities. This way it is also not possible to print custom types because it is not possible to put some custom % format string into printf, which the original printf implementation does not know.

Of course, it is possible to extend the type knowledge of the type2fmt meta function, in order to feed custom implementations of printf like functions with additional type format strings.

There are libraries like libfmt out there, which provide rich formatting capabilities. However, all such libraries add additional runtime overhead to the resulting program.

## Compilation Performance

Heavy template meta-programs tend to be slow. I invested a lot of time in measuring different type list implementations, in order to make this printf frontend fast.

In another blog article, I measured the performance of type lists using variadic template parameters, and recursive type lists. This library builds on the faster list implementation.

The resulting compile time overhead is rarely in measurable timing regions, which makes it useful for real life projects.

## Summary

I wrapped the code into a repository called pprintpp and published it on GitHub under the MIT license. (Link to the repository)

This library is in production use for some time now and helped get rid of a lot of typos and variable-type accidents while being very comfortable at the same time.

I’d be happy to hear that it is useful to others outside of my projects, too!